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Bible Lives  

14.  Paul

14-1 The Conversion Of Paul / Saul || 14-2-1 Paul And His Brethren || 14-2-2 The Weakness Of Paul || 14-2-3 Paul: A Character Study || 14-3 The Preaching Of Paul || 14-4 Saul Changed To Paul || 14-5 Paul's Relationship With Jesus || 14-6 Paul And Christ  (1) || 14-6-1 Paul's Use Of The Gospels  || 14-6-2 Paul's Quotations From The Gospels: Statistics || 14-6-3-1 Paul's Quotations From The Gospels: Analysis And Implications || 14-6-3-2 Inspiration: The Human Factor || 14-6-3-3 The Enigma Of John's Gospel || 14-6-3-4 The Nature Of The Gospel Records || 14-6-3-5 Memorizing Scripture || 14-6-4 The Supremacy Of Christ || 14-7 Paul And Christ (2) || 14-7-1 Paul's Use Of The Gospels: Further Observations || 14-7-2 Paul And The Parables || 14-7-3 Paul's Use Of The Sermon On The Mount (Mt. 5 - 7) || 14-7-4 Paul's Exposition Of Gethsemane || 14-7-5 Paul And The Characters In The Gospels || 14-7-6 Paul In The Gospels || 14-7-7 Paul And John The Baptist || 14-7-8 Saul, Paul And Stephen || 14-7-9 Following Elders || 14-7-10 Connections Between The Gospels And Epistles: Observations || 14-8 Paul's Heroes || 14-8-1 Paul And Moses || 14-8-2 Paul And King Saul || 14-9   Paul and Corinth || 14-10 Paul And His Weak Brethren || 14-11 Paul's Thorn In The Flesh || 14-12 Paul's Shipwreck  || 14-13 Paulís Self-Perception || 14-14 Paul, Philemon and Onesimus || 14-15 Chronology of Paulís Life

14-6-3-1 Paul's Quotations From The Gospels: Analysis And Implications

Letters

(listed chronologically) (1)

Number of verses

Number of allusions to the Gospels

Average number of verses / allusion

Paul's recorded speech in Acts (from conversion in AD 37 to first imprisonment) (2)

164

37

4.4

Galatians (AD 57)

149

19

7.8

1 Corinthians (Spring AD 57)

448

71

6.3

2 Corinthians (Winter AD 57)

255

32

7.9

Romans (AD 58)

433

61

7.0

1 Thessalonians (AD 59)

89

22

4.0

2 Thessalonians (AD 59)

47

11

4.3

Colossians (AD 62)

95

21

4.5

Ephesians (AD 62)

155

27

5.7

Philemon (AD 62)

25

2

12.5

Philippians (AD 63)

104

17

6.1

Titus (AD 66)

46

7

6.6

1 Timothy (AD 67)

113

25

4.5

2 Timothy (AD 68)

83

21

3.9

Hebrews (impossible to date)

303

54

5.6

The above research was done completely independently. Only subsequently did I come across a similar study by Arnold Resch, which detected a total of 1158 allusions by Paul to the Gospels. He detected 64 allusions to the Gospels in Paul's speeches in Acts, compared to my 37 (3). The point is, Paul almost certainly made more allusions to the Gospels than I have catalogued; his mind was even more saturated with the record of the Lord's life and work than I have shown. It must be remembered that this list is only of verbal similarity. A profitable study could be made of how Paul's actions, not only his words, reflected his saturation with the Gospels. The way he shook off the dust of his feet against Antioch was a clear reference to Mt. 10:14; and the way he fled from city to city, still preaching the Gospel under persecution, was surely in obedience to Mt. 10:23.

Like a tune we keep humming in our mind, so the Gospels clearly were the background for all Paul's thought- and this is to be our pattern, who seek to grow up into the stature of Christ, to continually face His face until we are transformed into it by continued exposure.


Notes

(1) These dates are quite standard. Justification for them is well presented in W. Johnson, The People's New Testament (London: Bagster, 1892). However, note should be taken of the thesis of John Robinson in Redating The New Testament (London: SCM, 1976) p. 84. He reaches the following dates:

AD 50 1 Thessalonians

51 2 Thessalonians

55 (spring) 1 Corinthians

55 (autumn) 1 Timothy

56 (early) 2 Corinthians

56 (late) Galatians

57 (early) Romans

57 (late spring) Titus

58 (spring) Philippians

58 (summer) Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians

58 (autumn) 2 Timothy.

The data of Paul's allusions to the Gospels, and indeed my whole thesis, could be re-worked using these datings- fair homework for the enthusiast.

(2) The following are the verses which contain Paul's direct recorded speech: Acts 9:5,6; 13:10,11,17-41,46,47; 14:15-17; 16:31,37; 17:22-31; 10:1,4; 20:10, 18-35; 21:13,39; 22:1-21; 23:1,3,5,6,17; 24:10-21; 25:10; 26:2-29; 27:10,21-26,33,34; 28:17-20, 25-28.

(3) For those who wish to really develop this research, Resch's paper is 'Der Paulinismus und die Logia Jesu', in  Texte und Untersuchungen, No. 27 (Leipzig, 1904). The whole issue is also usefully discussed in D.L. Dungan, The Sayings Of Jesus In The Churches Of Paul (Oxford: O.U.P., 1971).

 

 


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